A brief on liftboat and jacking machine

Jack up

The primary advantage of the jack up layout is that it offers a constant and comparatively movement-unfastened platform in the drilling function and mobilizes incredibly fast and easily. Although they at first have been designed to function in very shallow water, some more modern gadgets just like the “extremely-harsh surroundings”.

Liftboat

A liftboat is a self-propelled, self-raising vessel with a relatively massive open deck able to carrying device and vendors in aid of assorted offshore mineral exploration and production or offshore production sports.

Liftboats are commonly equipped with not less than one crane; Liftboats are typically used to carry out preservation on oil and fuel well systems. The liftboat charter normally actions on place on a side of the platform in which no obstructions or pipelines are determined, lowers its legs and jack up out of the water. For the motive that the pads of the liftboat are sitting on a muddy, volatile seafloor, maximum liftboats comply with a security degree known as a preload, in which the boat jacks-up certainly the minimal to clean hull from the tops of the large wave heights, fills its holds with water for weight and allows the boat to settle in the dust for many hours earlier than dumping the water and jacking as much as work top.

If the dust of the seafloor provides way beneath the liftboat, it may fall beneath the water and put the lives of the team at hazard. An complete web site survey earlier than shifting on location is a important protection measure to confirm that each one seafloor alternatives (like can holes, pipelines, and many others.) are acknowledged before choosing a final location.

Jacking device

After years of proof operational information and commercial enterprise needs, we advanced the most advanced excessive pace, excessive functionality liftboat Jacking System for the self-raising, cell offshore vessel business. The ABS accredited 430 Electro-Hydraulic Jacking System is meant specially for the brand new generation of self-elevating jack up, cellular offshore vessels applied within the offshore oil and fuel business, wind farm business and specific global offshore markets.

The offshore business demands greater from the vessel: additional jacking functionality, greater speed, and more operational lifestyles.

Key features for liftboats and self-elevating vessels:

•          Smooth operation – enamel engagement and transition is smoother than others

•          Load sharing – the load is shared between a couple of teeth in line with pinion, as a result, higher teeth-to-rack contact Longer, hole pinion shafts

•          Flexibility – this evidenced design allows the pinion to rotate barely beneath the heavy hundreds hydraulic force

•          High strength density vehicles – permits pace adjustments and much less pinions

•          Low inertia – they can respond to surprising reversals with less impact on the power

•          Speed is lightly varied from a creep to complete speed or any intermediate pace

•          Accurate leg loads

•          Jacking System statement

•          The network extends to diverse international locations global.

Blown Film Extrusion Introduction

Blown Film Extrusion Introduction
Blown film extrusion is a technology that is the most common method to make plastic films, especially for the packaging industry. The process involves extruding a tube of molten polymer through a die and inflating to several times its initial diameter to form a thin film bubble. This bubble is then collapsed and used as a lay-flat film or can be made into bags. Usually polyethylene is used with this process, and other materials can be used as blends with these polymers. A diagram of a polyethylene chain is shown in Figure 1 to the right.
Background Theory on Polymers

In the cooling step of blown film extrusion, the amorphous, transparent melt crystallizes to form a translucent, hazy, or opaque film. The point where opacity begins in the bubble is known as the frost line. 
Fig 1: Model of polytheylene chain frompolyethylene Wikipedia article.The frost line height is controlled by several parameters: the air flow, film speed, and temperature difference between the film and the surroundings. Properties of the film, such as tensile strength, flexural strength, toughness, and optical properties, drastically change depending on the orientation of the molecules. As the transverse or hoop direction properties increase, the machine or longitudinal direction properties decrease. For instance, if all the molecules were aligned in the machine direction, it would be easy to tear the film in that direction, and very difficult in the transverse direction.

The Film Blowing machine Process

Fig 2: Schematic of set-up from User:J.Chiang.

Typically, blown film extrusion is carried out vertically upwards, however horizontal and downward extrusion processes are now becoming more common. Figure 2 shows a schematic of the set-up for blown film extrusion. This procedure consists of four main steps: The polymer material starts in a pellet form, which are successively compacted and melted to form a continuous, viscous liquid. This molten plastic is then forced, or extruded, through an annular die. Air is injected through a hole in the center of the die, and the pressure causes the extruded melt to expand into a bubble. The air entering the bubble replaces air leaving it, so that even and constant pressure is maintained to ensure uniform thickness of the film. The bubble is pulled continually upwards from the die and a cooling ring blows air onto the film. The film can also be cooled from the inside using internal bubble cooling. This reduces the temperature inside the bubble, while maintaining the bubble diameter. After solidification at the frost line, the film moves into a set of nip rollers which collapse the bubble and flatten it into two flat film layers. The puller rolls pull the film onto windup rollers. The film passes through idler rolls during this process to ensure that there is uniform tension in the film. Between the nip rollers and the windup rollers, the film may pass through a treatment centre, depending on the application. During this stage, the film may be slit to form one or two films, or surface treated. Advantages Blown film generally has a better balance of mechanical properties than cast or extruded films because it is drawn in both the transverse and machine directions. Mechanical properties of the thin film include tensile and flexural strength, and toughness. The nearly uniform properties in both directions allow for maximum toughness in the film.
Blown film extrusion can be used to make one large film, two smaller ones, or tubes that can be made into bags. Also, one die can make many different widths and sizes without significant trimming. This high level of flexibility in the process leads to less scrap material and higher productivity. Blown films also require lower melting temperatures than cast extrusion. Measured at the die opening, the temperature of cast film is about 220 C, where as the temperature of blown film is about 135 C. Furthermore, the cost of the equipment is approximately 50% of a cast line.

Blown Film Extrusion Disadvantages Blown film has a less effective cooling process than flat film. Flat film cooling is done by means of chill rolls or water, which have significantly higher specific heat capacities than the air that is used in the blown film cooling process. The higher specific heat capacity allows the substance to absorb more heat with less change in the substance temperature. Compared to cast film, blown film has a more complicated and less accurate method to control film thickness; cast film has a thickness variation of 1 to 2% versus the 3 to 4% for blown film. The resins used for casting typically have a lower melt flow index, which is the amount of polymer that can be forced through a standard die in 10 minutes according to a standard procedure. The melt flow index for cast film is about 5.0 g/10 min where as for blown film it is about 1.0 g/10 min. Consequently, the production rates for cast film are higher: cast film lines can reach production rates of up to 300m/min where as blown film lines are usually less than half this value. And finally, cast film has better optical properties, including transparency, haze, and gloss.

Common Problems Air entrapment between film layers and rollers – this may cause film scratching or wrinkling, or processing problems when winding up the film due to reduced friction. Possible solutions to this is using a vacuum to remove entrapped air or by using winding rolls with a diamond shaped groove in the rubber cover to increase surface area and decrease amount of entrapped air in the film. Large output fluctuations from the die – this causes thickness variations, and can be prevented by keeping the extruder clean and by using more consistently shaped pellets in the extruder. Melt fractures – these appear as roughness or wavy lines on the film surface, and can be eliminated by lowering the viscosity of the polymer melt. This can be done by increasing the melting temperature or by adding an internal lubricant to the material composition. Thickness variations in the film – this can be avoided by centering the die in the extrusion line before every run, adjusting the air speed of the cooling system, or by using heated die lips. Die lines on the surface of the film – this defect reduces the aesthetic appeal of the film, reduces optical properties, and weakens mechanical properties such as tear strength. This can usually be avoided by routinely cleaning the inner surfaces of the die and by refinishing scratched or roughened flow surfaces. Gels – these defects are small, hard globules encapsulated in the film or stuck on the film surface and reduce the aesthetic appeal of the film and cause stress concentration points which may result in premature failure. These are caused by overheating to the point of polymer degradation in the die, and can therefore be avoided by cleaning the inner surfaces of the die on a regular basis. Optimization of the Process Coextrusion One way to improve the line efficiency of blown film extrusion is to implement coextrusion. This is the process of extruding two or more materials simultaneously through a single die. The orifices in the die are arranged such that the layers merge together before cooling. This process saves time because it extrudes two or more layers at the same time, and it provides a method with fewer steps to produce multilayer films. The production rate for a coextruded multilayer film of three layers is about 65m/min, and the production rate for a single layer of blown film is about 130m/min. Thus, in order to produce 10 000m of a three layer multilayer film, it would take almost 4 hours using a single layer blown film process, and only 2 and a half hours using the coextrusion process. Furthermore, the film produced from the single layer process would require an extra step to glue the layers together using some sort of adhesive. Coextrusion is the least expensive means of producing layered films and the coextrusion system is capable of quick changeovers to minimize production line down time.

Minimizing the Melt Temperature
The efficiency of blown film extrusion can be improved by minimizing the temperature of the polymer melt. Reduction of the melt temperature causes the melt to require less heating in the extruder. Normal extrusion conditions have a melting temperature at about 190 C despite the fact that the temperature of the melt only needs to be about 135 C. However, it is not always practical to decrease the melting temperature by that much. By decreasing the melt temperature 2 to 20 C, the motor load can be decreased by about 1 to 10%. Furthermore, reduction of the melt temperature causes less need for cooling, so there is a reduced use of the cooling system. Moreover, removing heat from the bubble is usually the rate-limiting factor in this extrusion process, so by having less heat in the polymer to remove, the rate of the process can be increased, thus yielding higher productivity. A way to maintain the melt temperature at a minimum is to choose an extruder that is matched to the specific processing conditions, such as the material of the melt, pressure, and throughput.

Heated Extrusion Die Lips
Typically, solutions to melt fractures involve decreasing the output or increasing the melt temperature to decrease the shear stress in the extruder. Both of these methods are not ideal because they both reduce the efficiency of the blown film line. Heated extrusion die lips can solve this problem. This targeted heating method allows for film extruders to be run at higher production rates with narrower die gaps while eliminating melt fractures. Direct heat is applied to the surface of the polymer melt as it exits the die so that viscosity is reduced. Therefore, melt fractures, which are caused when trying to extrude too much of the polymer at one time, will no longer act as a limiting factor to increasing the production rate. Furthermore, heated die lips use less energy than increasing the melting temperature because only the surface of the melt is heated and not the bulk of the liquid. Another benefit of using heated die lips is that thickness variations can be controlled by adding heat to certain areas along the die circumference to make the film at that position thinner. This would ensure that no excess material is used.
Determine how much energy each of these processes can save per given volume of material. 

Above article from www.appropedia.org

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Case Study: My Experience With Resources

How to Appreciate Your Employees

In our times today, we should know that it is difficult to look for employees that would be able to produce good results because there are a lot of competition where they would want to have their job. Good employees are able to provide a lot of great things for our company that is why it is important that we should be able to know how to treat them well so that they would not have any problems in working for us. Good employees produce great results because of the hard work that they provide in doing their work and it is important that we should be able to let them know that we appreciate the things that they do for our company. It is common knowledge that we are going to be rewarded for great things that we have done that is why it is important that you should not forget to reward employees that have provided a lot of things for the success that your company would have as they would surely be able to appreciate it. Having a system where a good employee is rewarded would create an environment where everyone would need to do well so that they would be able to achieve something and would also be properly rewarded for the work that they have done.

All employees would need to be praised when they would work hard so that they would not think that everything that they did was for nothing, there are a lot of employees who would quit their jobs because there are some employers that would not give any attention to the achievements that they have contributed for the company. You may not need to provide a lot of increase in their salary in order to let them know that you appreciate their services as you may just praise them for the job that they have done as it would surely be able to make them a lot happier. In our times today, it is also important that we should be able to provide the proper working environment for our employees so that they can be comfortable in doing their job and we should make sure that we are reasonable in the demands that we would give them. There are benefits that we should be able to provide to our employees and we should know that it is something that we should not deny them as it would be able to cause a lot of problems later on. You could get more trust from your employees if you are able to properly interact with them as they would be able to feel more comfortable around you. A happy employee would surely not leave their job sometime soon.

Offices: 10 Mistakes that Most People Make

Used Trailers For Sale: Convenience of Having a Mobile Office for Your Small Business

Many first-time entrepreneurs associate business with renting an office space, but it is not practical at all, and it’s best to find a cheaper option. Renting involves upfront costs and monthly fees, taxes and other miscellaneous expenses, and these are considered more of a burden than investment because you have not gained enough experience yet running a business. If you’re starting a new company, you have several options such as working at home, renting an office space only when it is needed, or buying a mobile office, in the form of used trailers.

If you want to start your own business, it is practical trying to work at home first because you just basically need a laptop and a desk. The online world offers a lot of opportunity such as online selling. There are many specialists providing office space for rent per hour or per day basis, depending on your business needs for product testing purposes or advertising purposes. The perfect solution if you really need a permanent office space but can’t afford to pay the annual dues is buying a mobile office using a used trailer. Used trailers can be converted into mobile office space, which is built to last, and are not as expensive as you might initially think. Rather than spending your money in a regular office space, invest in a mobile office using a used trailer, which can become an asset to your business, without you spending money on a regular office. Whether you basically need a mobile office, or cut the costs related to renting a traditional office space, purchasing a pre-owned office trailer is your best option. These used trailers underwent strict inspection and testing, providing you the best mobile office. Whether you want to take your mobile office with you or to your job site or plunk it down as a semi-permanent home for your small business, a dependable and reliable pre-owned office trailer will get the job done.

The making of used trailers into mobile offices involves rigorous customization and re-servicing, transforming them into formal, conducive and durable working environments. Experienced and skilled professionals are tasked to work on these special workspaces. These are considered modular buildings developed to act as similar work setting like a regular office space. Trailers may come with different features and specifications, such as single modular or combined modular, forming huge office complexes, and they highly depend on the business owner’s requirements and needs. For more information about office trailers, feel free to view our website.

The Key Elements of Great Products

Tips on Selecting a Custom Rubber Maker If a person is looking for a reliable factory to make custom rubber products, then there are some things worth looking for, and due to the many manufacturers in the market, it is integral to choose a manufacturer that the person can rely on. A good fact to state is that the level of client support is one of the major things to factor in when selecting a manufacturer because good manufacturers have excellent personalized customer service. A known fact is that since the client needs to be customized products, the experts must listen to the customer so that they can produce the product that the client needs and if the manufacturer appears too busy during the initial consultation or if they take no initiative to make any inquiries about what the customer needs then such a factory is not a good choice. The client needs to make sure that the company uses high-quality raw materials that will make sure that the person gets high-quality rubber products thus the client should not be afraid to ask the factory where they get their raw materials. The truth is that the client also needs to ensure that they never mix high-quality and low-quality materials and if the company is reluctant on giving any guarantees on their products, then they should be avoided. The truth is that the quantity of goods that the client needs will determine the kind of manufacturer that the person will need. If the customer requires a lot of supplies, they need to get a large scale manufacturer. It is important to get all the products from one factory because this means that the person will get products that are uniform in every aspect especially quality. The client has to ask about the turnaround time because in as much as the factory can supply the items that the person needs they still need to do within the shortest time possible.
Finding Ways To Keep Up With Products
A known fact is that it is better to select a local manufacturer because choosing a local manufacturer helps the person to save time and eliminates the inconvenience of having to travel long distances when visiting the factory and this also reduces the time and cost needed to transport the goods. Every service provider charges fees thus the client should never sign any contract without asking about the service charges. Some companies charge expensive fees that may not be an indicator that the firm offers high-quality services thus it is vital to contact some service providers and ask what their rates are so that they can avoid being ripped off. The client needs to look for a manufacturer that has been in the market for some years because they are less likely to go under.Why People Think Rubbers Are A Good Idea

A 10-Point Plan for Rubbers (Without Being Overwhelmed)

Rubber Manufacturing 101: What You Need to Know In the past years, rubber manufacturing has again gained some attention. If you are interested in finding a good rubber manufacturer, then you have come into the right article. There are several things you must first pay close attention to if you are after getting the services of a good rubber manufacturer. In finding one, the first thing that you must ascertain is the kind of rubber product that you are exactly looking for. This is one the reasons why you must do some homework first about the top. If you do this, you will then find out that products of rubber are a result of the many processes that had to take place involving the rubber. There are a lot of methods, and the most common being custom molded, lathe-cut, injection molded, and many more. This simply implies that no rubber manufacturer is the same because they utilize different methods. You may find some rubber manufacturers that focus more on bonding rubber with other substances or metals. Thus, knowing what kind of rubber it is exactly you are looking for is vital when it comes to the next process of choosing a good manufacturer. Now, one of the most basic of things that you can do to get local rubber manufacturer names is by making use of the internet. There are several search engine websites and other more specific websites that are sure to provide your several research results about rubber manufacturer. Upon visiting their website, never forget to drop by their forums and blogs so that you can check out some suggestions and feedback being posted by their previous and current clients. As you do this, you are then given some ideas of how the rubber manufacturer will be doing their work depending on their clients. You can also get some recommendations of rubber manufacturers from your family, friends, and work colleagues. Make it a point to talk to them about what they have experienced with the rubber manufacturer. You may also choose to attend some trade fairs that are being organized by various rubber manufacturing companies. When you do so, you are then able to talk person to person to different people coming from different rubber manufacturing companies attending. If you want to take your time in looking for one, then you can always choose to make use of a directory that contains several names and contact details of rubber manufacturers around the world. You then include them in your short list of rubber manufacturers after getting their response through call or e-mail. Also include inquiring about their quotes. Never forget to mention if their products are following certain regulations that apply to them particularly. It is vital that their rubber products are FDA approved because some of its content may pose hazardous to your health as well as your clients.News For This Month: Options

Questions About Options You Must Know the Answers To

Questions About Services You Must Know the Answers To

Choosing a Commercial Roofing Contractor When you’re looking for a roofer for your commercial roofing project you need to locate a contractor who understands the unique needs of a commercial roofing project. For instance it can be more difficult to perform on a business during business hours therefore possibly the firm has to be shut down for the repair or replacement or the occupation needs to be done after conventional working hours. Is the roofer you’re considering for the occupation willing and able to work around your program constrictions that might involve working weekends or evenings? When you start your hunt to get a roofing company not only does one have to answer these concerns but in addition, you need to seek out some one that will do a high quality work without lots of time-delays. Going about finding somebody can look like an obstacle but there are a few approaches to help make the lookup easier. Ask family and friends for testimonials and try to locate at least three contractors to give you written bids of your roofing job. Before going further you really need to be certain that the contractors you might be considering are fully-licensed and bonded. An easy investigation together with the state’s contractor’s board will verify if your roofer is accredited and if there are any previous rulings or claims against their license.
Short Course on Options – Getting to Square 1
When you select three to four roofers to place bids, you should prepare for the estimates to be broadly varied. Roofers may have manufacturer preferences that’ll differ and might factor in more or less than another man to get a job approximation. The more in-depth a written bid is the more beneficial it will be for you to tell how the cash will be utilized. Don’t, nevertheless, decide on a roofer based solely on the bid price. Any lowball bids might be tempting to choose, but if they have been reduced due to poor quality workmanship it may well maybe not be worthwhile in the long run.
What Research About Options Can Teach You
As the expression goes, you normally get exactly what you pay for, so if you can manage a mid-priced wager it’s always wise to move up in your price range in the place of cutting down. In addition, you should choose your roofer according to how expert they are and how comfortable you expect to be working with them. Finally your cost will vary according to the type of roofing substance you select along with the cost to haul your old roof to the dump. If you are searching for places to reduce corners on your top, in the place of reducing job price you may want to inquire about a metal-roof choice. Steel roofs can be price effective and energy efficient making them complete cash savers for the long term, as well as on commercial properties they can be extremely low care. Plus since they may be placed along with a current roofing, you don’t need to have the old one removed, which may create a huge effect on your spending.

Overwhelmed by the Complexity of Services? This May Help

Things to Keep in Mind When Hiring a Commercial Roof Contractor Without a doubt, a great deal of companies are very cautious when it comes to employing professional commercial roof contractors. If they would choose the wrong commercial roof contractor, then this would cost them a lot of money. Take into account that just by replacing, repairing, or even repainting or painting the commercial industrial roofing is a huge capital expense. It is a work that must be executed economically and appropriate the first time in order to avoid any potential downtime and damages especially further expenses. For this, you will need to employ a reliable commercial roofing contractor – a commercial roofing company that has presented track record as well as guaranteed to execute an outstanding job. But then again, how will you know which commercial roofing contractor you can depend on? To begin, the roofing companies that demonstrate a commitment to professionalism and excellence must be placed at the top of your list. And this includes:
The Beginners Guide To Services (From Step 1)
It is important that the roofing company you have in mind is a member of the master builders association. In addition, it is imperative that the commercial roofing company you are planning to hire has an all encompassing experience and history working on a large expanse of commercial as well as industrial roofing projects backed up with case studies and testimonials.
The Path To Finding Better Businesses
The company who makes use of only the most stringently proven and tested methods and materials available on the market these days. Make certain to hire a company who has workers that are certified in all aspects of occupational health, workplace as well as safety and have went a regular training and evaluation. And most likely, a company that is entirely licensed to manage and eliminate the asbestosis in all of its various forms and it a present member of the asbestosis removal contractors association. The professional commercial roofing companies will always carry with them widespread public accountability that will cover all the areas such as asbestosis insurance and must be happy to verify this crucial protection. And also, a lot of people say that you should only choose those commercial roofing companies that opt to hire roofing contractors who have showed that they are ahead of the rest of the pack and that they are knowledgeable and skilled with regards to the updated skills, techniques and technologies utilized in the field so as to be certain that costly blowouts in the upcoming years will be prevented. For this reason, when you employ a roofing contractor, be certain that you have done a background check before you hire them in order to make sure that your money will not be put to waste.

Finding Similarities Between Businesses and Life

4 Aspects to Consider Before Hiring a Commercial Roofing Contractor When hiring a commercial roofing contractor, a clued-up choice is quite imperative. This is essential in order to find a dependable roofing company with the best technicians. Investing in your commercial property is a big investment, and therefore a lot of seriousness is required. Apart from the common legal requirements such insurance and license, there are other vital things you need to put in mind. Of course, you need referrals in order to choose a reliable roofer. However, here are other 4 important things you should include in your checklist. First, ensure the company is backed by at least a product brand. A company that is backed up by a product brand reflects trustworthiness, and therefore important as having an insurance cover. Also, you will rest assured of high-quality work from the roofer. Second, avoid negotiating prices with sales men that will come in the name of a given contractor. regardless of what kind of roofing you want, it is good to be aware of the total price estimate. The sales men are likely to inflate the price so that the commission they will get from the final roofing company is also increased. Due to that price inflation, you may think that the price is too expensive to cater for. Therefore, you need to find out whether the person you are talking to is the real contractor of a company’s representative, but not sales men. In case you realize that the contractor is working with sales men, just look for another alternative.
Short Course on Roofing – What You Need To Know
Many of the companies that work with sales men are not reliable, and may not perfect the job because they are there to make easy-quick cash.
Getting To The Point – Roofing
Third, ask about the contractor’s availability. If a contractor is reliable, he or she will discuss with you about the project and any future assistance when needed. So, you will know whether the company will respond to your calls whenever emergency services are required. Apart from post the contract services, the contractor should assure you that he or she will supervise the entire roofing project. Some roofing contractors usually sub-contract jobs, and this can put the entire project at risk as far as quality of the final job is concerned. If the subcontractors will be there, ensure you check if they have full legal requirements such as license and insurance cover. Fourth, check the roofing company’s track record. Check the past similar roofing projects that have been successfully completed, as well as the duration of completion. You need to know this so that you monitor if the project will be completed in time to avoid additional charges. The track record of a roofing contractor will show you how long the company has been in the industry. An experienced company is the best to hire.

The Beginners Guide To Services (What You Need To Know To Get Started)

Stages of Waste Water Treatment Process.

Both domestic and industrial processes leads to variety of waste including solids, water and gases. These types of wastes are directed into the environment and cab e hazardous. However, if the wastes are taken through treatment plants, the amount of harm done to the environment could be minimal. The end products of the waste treatment plants includes clean water, harmless biodegradable and recycled products The processes involved in the treatment of these wastes differs depending on the source and the type of waste. Wastewater is common in most process including in homes and industries. The wastewater treatment process is carried out in three phases.

The septic system is used to treat water in most homes. The septic system is not complicated but should always be functional mode. Nevertheless, septic systems that serve several homes are more complex since they have to absorb lots of waste. There are however wastewater treatment plants for use in high factories and residential estates. There are manufacturers of wastewater treatment plants and can help with the design and construction of wastewater treatment plant. They will design the plan according to the project specific needs. The manufacturers have engineers who handle the project since its inception to monitoring and maintenance works. These are a sophisticated process that requires large investments. These systems remove quality clean water and thus used at commercial levels.

The wastewater treatment plants involve three main stages. Water flows through pipes either by pumping or gravitational force to large reservoirs. In these reservoirs, there is removal of floating and suspending solids. The process involves use of centrifugal force. About 60% of solids will be removed at this stage. Removal of solids can be increased through addition of chemicals. The water is taken to the second stage of treatment known as the secondary stage of organic stage. At this level, the remaining biodegradable and suspending particles are provided as food to organisms such as fish. The organism in the water eat the food particles in the water remove the phosphate and nitrates nutrients in the water. About 80% of water impurities is removed at this stage. Water released to the environment at this stage is not harmful.

water is however made pure by
taking it to the third stage. This phase is known as tertiary level, and the water released here can be used for different purposes. The water may be treated using various chemicals to ensure its safety. Chlorine is used to purify the water though it has been disputed in the recent times.

Water pumped to the treatment plant should not contain industrial chemicals. The company that is producing water containing chemicals should remove these chemicals by having a treatment plant at their base.